There are different theories

Peruvian archaeological sites

Stone resources bought at Cuncaicha and Pucuncho internet sites in Peru. Image credit: Kurt Rademaker et al.One scientific theory about thin air colonization suggests that folks cannot inhabit high altitudes until genetic version does occur, like sort we get in Andean consumers.

Andeans have actually genetically adapted to their thin air environment.

Crucial variations in the Andean men and women feature a higher metabolism, bigger lung capability and higher hemoglobin levels then the person with average skills, all of these let them over come a lack of oxygen.

“Was this version present 12, 000 years back? We don’t understand for many, ” said Dr Sonia Zarrillo regarding the University of Calgary, who's a co-author associated with report published in the diary Science.

The very first website Dr Zarrillo and her colleagues discovered, Cuncaicha, is a stone refuge at 4.5 kilometer above sea level, with a stone-tool workshop below it.

According to the archaeologists, it was occupied about 12, 400-11, 500 years ago.

The second site, Pucuncho, is a historical workshop where rock tools were made at 4.4 km above sea-level. It dates to around 12, 800-11, 500 years ago.

“We don’t determine if people were living here all year round, but we highly suspect they certainly were not just going indeed there to look for a few days, after that making. There were possibly even families residing at these sites, because we’ve discovered evidence of a complete number of activities, ” Dr Zarrillo stated.

“Climatic problems in both websites tend to be harsh, with aspects including low-oxygen, severe cool and large levels of solar radiation making life in your community difficult for humans.”

She added: “our team hiked as much as three to four hours to make the journey to these websites. Which was a climb, carrying all of our gear, camp gear and food. Plus it freezes every night. Sometimes it snows. These are extremely difficult sites to get into.”

Archaeological evidence available at web sites includes signs of habitation such as for example human being head fragments, pet stays and stone tools.

The Pucuncho web site yielded 260 stone tools, eg projectile points, bifaces and unifacial scrapers. The Cuncaicha stone shelter contains a “robust, well-preserved and well-dated career sequence.”

“Most of the rock tools at Cuncaicha were made of in your area readily available obsidian, andesite and jasper, as they are indicative of searching and butchering in line with limited subsistence choices on the plateau. Along with plant continues to be, bones in the site indicate searching of vicuña and guanaco camelids as well as the taruca deer, ” the scientists said.

“At Cuncaicha we discovered keeps representing entire animals. The sorts of rock tools we’ve discovered aren't just searching tools and scraping resources used for processing hides to help make such things as garments, bags or blankets, ” Dr Zarrillo stated.


Kurt Rademaker et al. 2014. Paleoindian settlement associated with high-altitude Peruvian Andes. Science, vol. 346, no. 6208, pp. 466-469; doi: 10.1126/science.1258260


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